immigration policies that absolutely disfavor black and brown
people in that process and continue to be a source of difficulty
in our country now in terms of our immigration laws. So these
are some of the foundations.
And even where we have laws—where we had laws that
were discriminatory, maybe those laws are gone, but we still
have the history and the production of what was created
by those laws. And so we have seen both explicit bias that
has been present, and then we have implicit bias… we have
unconscious factors in play when we encounter folks who are
different from ourselves.
The work on implicit bias has been very deep and very
scientific, so we know for a fact that people have certain
reactions toward people they perceive as having disabilities
or having mental health issues and
absolutely [there are these reactions]
along racial lines.
So we have our explicit biases and
we have our implicit biases. So now
lay that on top of law enforcement and
what do you have? When I am some-
one with a gun in a tense situation,
it could lead to death. And this is
the very thing that we have seen happen that Norm refer-
enced. We have a radical problem with loss of life in black
and brown communities at the hands of police. And so how
do I think we’re doing? We need to do a lot better than
Some of the things that make a difference are when
the training for police is affirmatively taking on these
questions of explicit and implicit biases—and I know Sue’s
doing some great things bringing people in … really talking
with recruits about what their experiences are in these com-
munities. That can make a difference.
Watch the entire one-hour webcast of this conversation at
"If you look at any police equipment
publications, you would think you
were looking at a military catalog."