In the days of yore, U.S. travelers to Canada did not worry about the physical act of crossing the border. Canada was friendly and welcomed most folks. No ne talked about “admissibility.” In fact, Canada was fondly perceived as the 51st state. U.S. travelers felt free to enter Canada with no more concern than crossing a state boundary. The aftermath of 9/11 changed our northern border on both sides — dramatically on the U. S. side (say hello to the
Department of Homeland Security and its family of INS-derived
agencies: USCBP, USCIS, ICE) and more incrementally on the
Canadian side, as implemented by the Canadian Border and Security Agency (CBSA).
U.S. travelers who have been blithely traveling to Canada
for decades have suddenly found the door slammed shut by
the CBSA. This article will examine how we have come to this,
Crossing the Northern
Challenges to Some
O Border, Where Art Thou?
and what the “suddenly inadmissible” can do to re-open the
door to Canada.
The CBSA was created partially in response to 9/11 by an Order
in Council on Dec. 12, 2003. The CBSA became responsible for
providing integrated border services to facilitate the free flow of
persons and goods as well as supporting national security, public safety, and trade. Immigration enforcement and intelligence
responsibilities under the Immigration and Refugee Protection
Act (IRPA) were transferred from Canada Immigration and Citizenship (CIC) to the CBSA.
CBSA, Admissibility, and Databases
Through the Admissibility Determination Program, the CBSA
enables border services officers to intercept people who are
by Terry T. Preshaw